First, relic scraps are required to craft analyzers. One scrap and one bio-fossil are needed in the recipe. Also, in the archeology workbench, relic scraps are used as fuel when repairing different relics like volutes and swords.
Lastly, relic scraps can be analyzed to find different types of ancient artifacts. Pottery shards, ancient figurines, broken ancient helmets, and broken ancient swords all have a 4% chance of being "found" in the analyzer. Stone tablets have a 30% chance. Gravel and flint have a 40% and an 18% chance, respectively.